Migration, Memory & Memorial

1915 January to March

Newspaper image © The British Library Board. All rights reserved. With thanks to the British Newspaper Archive.



The new Immigration Bill is now before the Senate, having passed the House of Representatives. It denies the right of entry into the United States to all persons who rebel against their government to the extent of advocating the destruction of property. It is aimed at the English militant Suffragists.

(From The Suffragist.)



Cargoes of Food Start from New York and Philadelphia.

The steamship Massapequa sailed for Rotterdam yesterday with 3500 tonnes of food and clothing for the Belgians. This is the second voyage of the Massapequa. The Rockefeller Foundation, which sent her, has spent more than $1,000,000 on ships and cargoes for Belgian relief.

The Massapequa carried donations from all over the United States.

The fifth Belgian relief ship to leave Philadelphia, the Industry, loaded with a 6000-ton cargo of foodstuffs and clothing, sailed last night for Rotterdam.

American Ambulance Hospital.

Among the contributions received yesterday for the American Ambulance Hospital in Paris was one of $1100 from the Pomfret School, Pomfret, Conn., for an automobile ambulance. Contributions, which should be sent to J. P stop Morgan & Co., 23 Wall Street, amounted to $1755, which brought the total to $260,808. These persons contributed yesterday;
Mrs. Clinton Ogilirio…………………………………… 500
Pomfret School…………………………………………1,100

Belgian Fund Now $761 564.

The Belgian Relief Fund now amounts to $761,564.07, of which $2,950.82 was received yesterday. Subscriptions should be sent to J. P. Morgan & Co., 23 Wall Street, or to the Belgian Relief Committee, 8-10 Bridge Street.

FEBRUARY 20, 1915


At Bedford College yesterday Mr. A. C. Bradley delivered the third of a course of six University of London lectures on the international crisis in its ethical and psychological aspects, his subject being “International Morality and Schemes to Secure Peace.” Mr. Arthur Acland presided.

Mr. BRADLEY, speaking of arbitration between nations and individuals, said that the idea of a United States of Europe had often been mooted, and it was coming into the foreground. The idea was hopeful, but he touched upon some of the difficulties and dangers attending it. Such a federation must be as close as that of the United States of America, and no State would have a large armed force. Existing States would not consent to that, but a long propaganda might conceivably lead to the adoption of the idea.

In such a union could all States have an equal voice? It seemed certain that decisions would follow the interests of the Great Powers, and there would be always the danger that, powerful States would seek to elude the decision. There would be danger of secret combinations to pursue or defend particular interests. The general course would probably be to discourage change, and if such a union had been formed a century ago it would have discouraged changes we have since seen to be good.

The idea could not be realized until the map of Europe could be redrawn so that divisions of States would correspond with nationalities. Again, all States would have to become democratic. Democracies were not always peaceful, but all would agree that prospects of peace were not improved while power rested with an autocrat.

FRIDAY, MARCH 19, 1915


Big Raider Arrives in Fog and Gets Away Apparently Undamaged.

Special Cable to THE NEW YORK TIMES.

NORTH OF FRANCE. March 18. – (Dispatch to The London Daily Chronicle) – A Zeppelin made its appearance over Calais at 12:30 o’clock this morning.

The night seemed unsuitable for an aerial raid.

The thick fog hung in the air, making it almost impossible to see more than a few hundred yards. Only the absence of wind was favourable to the air monster.
Great, therefore, was the amazement of the guard house in Calais when the telephone rang a little after midnight to report from Mark, a small town on the Dunkirk-Calais line, that a Sapling had been perceived making its way towards Calais. Immediately the searchlights were switched on while the town itself was quickly plunged into darkness. But the beams of the searchlight were unable to penetrate the mist to any great distance and when the roar of the motors was heard overhead it was impossible to make out the dirigible itself.

Ere long the first of the bombs exploded. These were for the most part incendiary bombs, which at the moment of explosion through into the sky a red glare that lit up the streets and houses.

This first volley of bombs had little effect, and the Settling for a moment arrested both its flight and bombardment. For a few minutes we could not hear the motors, and we had begun to hope that the danger had passed when the roar of the engine started again as loud as ever, and the dirigible having taken her bearing to her satisfaction, once more began to drop bombs on the town.

All this time quick-firing guns were blazing away at the airship, and some shrapnel shells even were aimed at her, but, extraordinary as it may seem, revealed nothing of the giant craft at any moment during her flight. It is even more extraordinary that those on board of her were able to make out exactly where they were and to follow the precise route they had set out for themselves.

Of the bombs they dropped one found a target, killing seven men and wounding nine others. The bomb fell upon to 2nd-class railway carriages in which a number of mechanics belonging to the Northern Railway Company, was sleeping. These mechanics were refugees from Lille, who, having no homes of their own, had made their temporary habitation in these railway carriages.

Flames broke out after this slaughter and in a moment the railway carriages were all ablaze. Nine mechanics were extricated alive from the blazing woodwork. One of them will not survive his injuries.

One bomb fell on Notre Dame Cathedral piercing the vault of one of the chapels of the right transept and wreaked irreparable damage to the beautiful old glass of its Gothic windows.

This same bomb, which must have been of considerable size, sent debris flying into the courtyard of Lamarque Hospital in the Rue de la Rivière, full of Belgian wounded. These were being tended by English nurses, one of whom told her experience that thus:
“Three of my colleagues and I were sleeping on the first floor of the hospital when we were awakened by a frightful uproar. Our windowpanes had been shattered to fragments.

“We immediately realized what had happened and ran up once to our patients. Two of them had been slightly grazed, in particular one man whom we had been treating for tetanus the several weeks. These helpless men were all frantic with alarm, but we continue to reassure them until all danger had passed. We saw quite distinctly the track of the burning petroleum, which the Germans were pouring upon the town. Fortunately this blazing oil was extinguished on its way to the ground. An incendiary bomb also fell outside our doorway, but did not go off.”

These nurses of the Lamarque Hospital behaved admirably, but all the menfolk in the hospital, except the doorkeeper, fled for refuge into the sellers, and the women were left alone to look after the wounded.

One of the Zeppelin’s bombs fell in front of the general Post-Office, but all the damage it did was to make a small hole in the pavement, a few inches wide.

Owing to the mist, it was uncertain what direction the Zeppelin took after leaving town.

JULY 19, 1915

The German armies are exerting great pressure from the north of Warsaw to the Baltic and the Russians are falling back towards the line of the Narew on the fortresses protecting the Warsaw-Petrograd railway. The black line in the map shows the approximate battle front. Great enemy forces which were launched from Mlawa have taken Przasnysz and claim to have broken the Russian front between Ciechanow and Podos, 40 miles from Warsaw.

Wednesday September 29 1915


Lloyd’s agent at Colon cables to-day as follows: “Fresh slide this morning. Possible further delay”.


9th January 1915, New York.

To Abraham from Elise. Written in English.

Loving father,

I wish you a happy New Year and I hope you have spent your holidays pleasantly. I am very sorry that I could not send you my picture at New Year but anyway I will send it to you by and by. I would like to see your photo. I am very sorry for disappointing you and I hope you will forgive me. I never meant that you say this but that you simply make it for an excuse. I am very glad to tell you that I am going on fine in school and my name is in the school book. Dear father, I hope you are working now and don’t suffer on account of the war. I hope you are in good health. Dear father please tell me more about yourself and how you are getting on. I hope you will send me your photo. Dear father, I am sending you a poem which I made called Snowflakes. I made more but I think this is the best.

With fondest love I am,

Your loving daughter,


9th January 2015, New York

To Jacques from Elise. Written in English.

Loving Brother

I am sending you my best New Year wishes, I have sent you the papers which you asked for and I hope you have them. Please tell me if you have them because I will send you one every week. I am going on fine in school. But I am very sorry that I have forgotten my French. I repent it very much. Loving brother, if you would only know how I am longing to see you. I hope the time will come soon. I hope you are working and going on all right. You must have hard times in London. I hope you don’t suffer much. If you need anything please let me know. We will gladly help you. Please answer to this letter and tell me more about yourself. I hope you are in good health. Dear Jacques, I am sending you a poem which I made called ‘Snowflakes’, I will send you my photo by and by.

With fondest love, I am

Your loving sister Elisa

The Snowflakes

As I was falling and flying,
Whom do you think I saw,
I saw my comrades playing,
And children so gay and small.

A pleasant time we had
As we came flying through the air,
I thought it was the pleasantest time
That snowflakes ever had.

And as we reached the earth,
Each one a different way,
I found myself on a windowsill,
And my mother so far away.

And looking in the window,
I beheld a beautiful sight,
There was a beautiful tree,
And I was as envious as envious as could be.

For there on the tree as I thought,
My comrades did I see,
And I wanted to be with them,
With them on the beautiful tree.

And then I asked my comrades on the sill,
Why we shouldn’t be on the tree,
But they said that I should be still,
Because it wasn’t real snowflakes on that tree.

They told me that if I were there,
A snowflake no more would I be,
But would melt away into water,
And no more rejoice with them there.

But I a fullish snowflake
To their advice wouldn’t hear,
I cried and cried and cried,
Because I couldn’t be on the tree.

Just then the sun came out and upon us did he shine,
And we glittered like many diamonds,
But I only wept and cried,
Soon my comrades cheered me and told me a wonderful tale.

They told me that soon we were going,
To our mother there up high,
And so I wiped my tears that were falling
Falling so tearful down.

Then the sun laughed and took us one by one.
And I was longing to go first,
But that could not be done,
So little by little away we went.


10th January 2015, New York.

To Jacques from Dora. Written in English.

Dear son,

You made me very happy with your dear letter. It is the first kind letter I ever had from you my dear son. You blame me not writing to you. Well, it may be I was wrong but when I last sent you my photo you did not even answer it you received it nor that of Elisa. I anderstood it is not your fault but that you are still under the influence of your father as when you were 10 years old, and you see through your fathers eyes and feeling with your fathers heart and I did not see it proper to interfere, but your poor sister she used to cry and be angry why you did not answer and I gave her the advise to write to you may be you will see that I don’t bother you and you will write. And I think I was right but I was oposed to that she sould tell you about my sickness because it is no use you should know it will make you feel bad. But she did it and I can tell you that you should not be alarmed about me. It may be that I will have a chance to be cured because it is only the beginning and I have the best treatmant to that they give a x-ray treatment and it looks as if it will be better I do not look bad at all only I feel sometimes weak but otherwise I am all right. And Elise is getting a very nice girl every body likes her very much she is in manny way like you and that makes me to like her still more my dear child. I am very proud of you, what you are so nice but I am not surprised because you was allways a good and smart boy and I knew that you will grow up to be a honest and good man. I would be delighted if I could at least have your photo but I understand that you must now have a terible bad time and you would not be able to spend for that. I am very glad though for one thing that you are not yet in Paris. I heard that every body are sufering terible it is really the worst thing in the civilized world. Even here in America every body feel it becouse buisness is very bad and most of the people are out of work. The American people are generaly for the allies and every time the Germans are beaten everybody is glad and every body would like it should take a end. My dear child, if you want to make me the pleasure and answer me at once how are you getting along in health. I am allways worrying about you because you used to be such a delicate child. I have all the trouble to make you eat something. Tell me if you are still like this and I hope you are not. I would like to know if you see sometimes my sister and her children. I would like to know about them it is a long time since I heard from them and if you don’t mind tell me how is the English people suporting the war. I heard that everything is very dear. And tell me if it is true that your cusin Louis joined the armie as I know he is so young now.

I am wishing you a happy new year,

I send you many kisses from your loving mother, Dora.

Jacques, Mamma wants you to read this poem.

Poem by William Kirk.

You may write a thousand letters to the maiden you adore
You declare in every letter that you love her more and more.
You may praise her grace and beauty in a thousand glowing lines
and compare her eyes of azure with the brightest star that shines.
If you had the pen of Byron you would use it every day
In composing written worship to your sweetheart far away.
But the letter far more welcome to an older, gentler breast
Is the letter to your mother from the boy she loves the best.
Youthful blood is fierce and flaming and when writing to your love
You will rave about your passion, swearing by the stars above;
Vowing by the moon’s white splendour that the girlie you adore
Is the one you’ll ever cherish as no maid was loved before.
You will pen full many a promise on those pages white and dumb,
That you never can live up to in the married years to come.
But a much more precious letter, bringing more and deeper bliss
Is the letter to your mother from the boy she cannot kiss.
She will read it very often when the lights are soft and low,
Sitting in the same old corner where she held you years ago.
And regardless of its diction or its spelling or its style
And although its composition would provoke a critic’s smile,
In her old and trembling fingers it becomes a work or art,
Stained by tears of joy and sadness as she hugs it to her heart.
Yes, the letter of all letter, look wherever you may roam
Is the letter to your mother from her boy away from home.

10th February 1915

To Dora from Jacques. Written in English.

Cornwall Road,
Notting Hill, W.

Dear Mother,

I am very pleased with your letter and wish you would continue writing to me. You say you didn’t write because I didn’t write to you, after receiving your photo. It is not correct. I did send you a letter then and cannot explain myself how you did not get it. Maybe the address was written wrongly. But when you are the most mistaken is when you say I didn’t write because I was under Father’s influence. Really, you don’t know me and you don’t know father. He is not what you thought and think he still is. He never spoke badly of you and always try to excuse you before me. He never taught me to forget you and never to hate you. He never spoke of you but in the best terms. For the rest he left the matter to my own mind. And though you say I feel with his heart and see with his eyes. It can’t be true. I can’t feel for him and understand in his place nor can he feel for me. And still more couldn’t I feel with his heart in a fact that happened six years ago

And then comes another question or rather a fact. When you left me you didn’t love me as otherwise how could you leave me with someone you did not love and who you departed from because you said life was impossible with him. And did you think of the wrong you were doing towards Elisa and me, separating one from the other, 2 loving children who will perhaps never again see each other. But then you said in a previous letter to me, it was for my good. I really can’t see that. Did you leave me for my good or for Eliza’s good or for your own welfare?

And you want me to love you as a son loves his mother. Why then didn’t you love me as a mother must love her son and daughter? You see I am not feeling with anyone else’s eyes and heart but with my own. I am only judging upon my remembrances and upon my mind. But for my own part I forgave you all the wrong you have done to me and only wish that one day you won’t have to regret it.

I am in very good health and going on quite all right. I wish I could send you my photo. You would find a difference with the last one. I am 17, looking very well, I am not so delicate than I used to be. I have not been ill since years. I am not as I was before. I eat everything when I am hungry, of course I am about 5 feet 7 inches high. If I were old enough I trust I could make a soldier.

My cousin Louis G., who is 3 months older than me joined the Army in August and was not taken until October, but he didn’t like it. It is so hard. So his parents managed to get him out of it as he was underage. And it is lucky as I believe the regiment he joined left already for France. But you should see him. He is such a strong and handsome fellow.

I am glad your illness is not so grave that I thought. I heard the x-ray treatment is one of the best in your case. I wish you prompt recovery.

I only saw once your sister and two or three times her children. I haven’t got much the time to go there. I don’t work there and when I went to see your niece Annie, they were out. But I will try to find them. You ask me how the English people is supporting the War. Well it doesn’t after all make much difference to London. Business are as usual, theatres and music halls full, everyone seems working, the most for the Army and nobody is very excited about the war. Of course, it is the only thing we are speaking and writing about. The papers are full of war news and war pictures. But we didn’t have such a bad time I expected we would have. But the War is not over yet.

We see a lot of soldiers in Khaki in the streets, a lot of flags in the windows. But that’s all. But we don’t know how long it will be and how it will end. I am afraid it will be terrible. We had a few times some excitement. It was in the first month of the War when things were going badly, it was when we had a naval victory and it is now again when we are threatened by German with a naval blockade of England. Living is very dear now, bread, milk is very high, the income tax is doubled and I am afraid that if Germany keeps her word, we shall be very bad in here. But I believe Germany is only bluffing and can’t do what she is boasting about. In the meantime we are expect a zeppelin attack since August last, which never came. But nevertheless, London is kept in the dark at night time and it is the most disgraceful.

I hope you will send me another letter soon and I would be very please,

With best love,

I am,

Your son,

Jacques B.

17th February 1915

To Elise from Abraham. Written in English.

Cromwall Road,
North Kensington
W. London.

My dear child Elisa

I received your dear letter and am very glad to hear how you are getting on nicely in school. To tell you the truth I did not expect it. I remember when you were in the age of 5 or 6 years, I used to ask you how many is one and two you said five and how many makes five and one you found it was two. After that you can understaind that I have had little hope that you will make a good scholar. Now I am very glad that I made a mistake. I wish you in the future to go on in that way so you should become an instructive and inteligent girl.

I have read your poem with great attention and pleasure. I find it nicely written and a good idea. It is a good exemple to many children and even to yourself. Like your foolish snowflake she did not want to listen to the advise of her more experienced comrades and was always crying she wanted to be on the tree, she did not understaind to what danger she is exposing herselfe and that not every glitering white spot is a snowflake. So many children do not want to listen to the advise of theire bigger friends of theire more experienced parents fathers and mothers, and are always crying they want to do what they ought not to do and to be what they ought not be.

Therefore my dear child when you want to do something and you are advised by your mother to do otherwise, don’t cry, remember your snowflake. It may be you are exposing yourself to the same danger as your snowflake has done.

I have read also my dear child the poem of William Kirk that you have sent to Jack “a letter of a son to his mother”. I agree with him that a letter to his mother of a son must be his most sacred and is the most usefull duty and no bigger pleasure can have a mother than to receive a letter of his son. But my dear child, the good feeling William Kirk he did not mean only a letter of a son to his mother he meant also a letter of a daughter to her father. It makes him happy too. Therefore my dear child if you like the poem and find he is right then make your father happy and write a letter immediately. Tell me all about you. Tell me of your life in school and at home. Tell me wether you learn in school besides knowledge some of the useful things, like singing, playing or dancing. Tell me what is your most favourite occupation when you are free from school. Tell me how do you suport the New York climate, the winter colds and the sumer heat. I have heard that in New York it very cold in winter and very hot in sumer. Keep this page before you when you will write so you should not forget any of these questions.

30th March 1915, New York

To Abraham from Elise. Written in English.

Grote Street

Loving Father

It gave me much pleasure to read your loving letter. Dear father there is one thing which grieves that you have not said a word about your health. How are you getting on in those fogs? Dear father how is your foot? Does it bother you anymore? I remember the time when you was in the hospital on account of it.

Loving father you asked me to tell you what my favorite occupation will be when I graduate. I have made up my mind to be a teacher. In school we learn to dance and we have a club for the best dancers. I am in that club. We dance at concerts which the principal makes. We dance in our assembly. It is very pleasant. We also sing. We have a class called the stenography class. We learn short hand there. It is a very good opportunity because when I go to high school I shall have to study it. Not everyone goes to the stenography class only the ones who want to go.

The climate here is not as you think. It is very pleasant. Especially this winter. We hardly had any cold weather and as for snow we had it once. The weather here is much better than in Paris. Our seasons are very beautiful. In summer if it is to hot we go bathing in the sea. We have much fun among the waves. There isn’t any fogs here as in Paris. You asked me to tell you about my Aunt Mrs Bt. and her family. They are all in good health and they send you their best regards. Fanny is going to get married soon. Louis took up a course as a sailor. When he graduates from there he has a chance to be a captain or first mate. The course will last two years. He is going to travel around the world and he said that when he will be in London he will try to see you. I hope he will.

Fanny Bt. (With kind permission of her family).

Dear father I shall soon send you my photo. I am sending you two poems which l hope will please you as much as the first. One is ‘Spring’ and the other is ‘The father and his children’. I am in very good health and getting along well. I hope to hear the same from you. Please answer to my letter.

With many kisses and love, I am your loving daughter


The Father and his Children

Two happy loving children were gathered about his knee,
And the little girl did plea and beg
Of her father, for a story, so full of glee was she,
And the boy he clapped his hands and laughed for the story his loving father read.
But now her father is separated and so is her brother too
She still remembers the happy times
She never can forget her father who always gave rides
And she always sits and thinks until it makes her cry

But now her father is separated and so is her brother too
She still remembers the happy times
She never can forget her father who always gave rides
And she always sits and thinks until it makes her cry

30th March 1915, New York

To Jacques from Elise. Written in English

Loving Brother,

It gave me much pleasure reading your letter. I am very glad that you are in good health and strong. I am in good health too. I am 13 years of age and rather tall for my age. Mother said that I am getting prettier every day. Next summer I shall graduate from school. I hope your next letter will be a long one. I shall wait anxiously for an answer. Please write more about yourself. Mother will send you a letter soon. She sends you her best regards and her love, I am sending you a poem called ‘Spring’ which I hope you will enjoy as much as the first. I am not sending you such a long letter as you would want because I told papa all the news.

With love and many kisses I am your affectionate sister, Elisa

Nature is smiling in her glorious dress,
And the trees all abloom are glowing.
The dear little children are in such a mess.
As through the meadows they go roaming.

The beautiful flowers are all abloom,
And the trees are proud of their blossom.
The murmuring brook as it babbles by,
Makes the wind to laugh and sigh.

This is the best season of the year.
For it has a beautiful and soft atmosphere,
The little birds their carols sing,
To tell the world that spring is here.

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