Migration, Memory & Memorial

1913 January to November

Newspaper image © The British Library Board. All rights reserved. With thanks to the British Newspaper Archive.


The case against the corrupt government of London by the L.C.C. muddlers Spring Gardens grows blacker with every fresh investigation. The latest scandal which the DAILY HERALD is in position to expose concerns the criminal neglect of consumptives by the L.C.C. caucus. That body has power to provide treatment for persons, whether they are insured or not, under the Insurance Act. The Local Government Board has invited them to do so. Neither of the two big parties has included the question in its official manifesto, and neither has given any hint as to what it intends to do in the matter.

Lesson for the Workers.

At present only insured persons can benefit, with the result that thousands poor women and child victims of the terrible scourge must go without treatment, or seek the forbidding shelter the Poor Law infirmary or the hospital. In any case hundreds of consumptives are left to die. Such a disgraceful state of affairs is sufficient to damn any public authority. “The workhouse infirmary for consumptives!” That is the motto of the L.C.C. Have the workers learnt their lesson yet, or will they again send back to Spring Gardens a body of men who neglect consumptives, half-starve their little children, and sweat their own employees in thousands?

Miss A. Susan Lawrence, labour candidate for Poplar, passed severe criticism upon L.C.C. methods during the course of a chat with a DAILY HERALD representative yesterday.

“Yes,” she remarked, “one of the outstanding issues at this election is the question of sanatoria treatment for consumptives. The County Council has power to provide treatment for all persons, whether insured or not. So far they have done nothing with regards uninsured persons, nor have they given any hint on the subject.”

Miss Lawrence then discussed the Labour programme, and laid great stress on the necessity of one rate for London. “I advocate that,” she said, “because London is divided into cities of the rich and cities the poor. Westminster has a rate of 6s. 5d., and Poplar’s rate is 11s. 2d. The result is that the poor district quite crushed a burden of that kind.”

The Poplar candidate made a highly important suggestion relative to the need of indirectly elected or nominated authorities being under the control of the County Council. “Such bodies as the Port of London Authority should be controlled by the L.C.C. There is no reason why they should not administered by a committee of the L.C.C.”



Just as vaccination against smallpox became compulsory, so health authorities in the near future will seek to bring about the compulsory vaccination of all children against typhoid. Health Commissioner Lederle, prompted by the existence of a severe typhoid epidemic on the East side, caused by the drinking of infected milk, favors this measure, although he believes the protest against a compulsory vaccination law would be too strong for its speedy enactment.

All the recruits for the American army are inoculated with anti-typhoid serum. Vaccination at intervals of three years is required of every member of the army core and its supervisors. The young man who entered the West Point Military Academy must submit to inoculation. The results achieved by his treatment are certain, they have diminished the terrorists of campaigning by cheating death of more victims than fall in battle. The reaction from the perfected vaccine is less troublesome than that from vaccination against smallpox, and the immunity it confers is practically absolute during the three years interval between treatments.

This city can hardly inspect the thousands of dairies in seven or eight states that daily furnished its milk supply. Much is done by way of inspection, more is left undone, and the river of milk is from time to time contaminated for the masses. Requirement of pasteurisation would be wise, since it would insure against other diseases than typhoid, notably scarlet fever and tuberculosis. But the pasteurised milk must itself be guarded, for it is peculiarly susceptible to reinfection. A measure that would make the individual immune against typhoid that comes from milk and water supplies, vegetables, and from filth and dust of the city, need not be likely rejected.

Friday November 14, 1913

Ideal Dress for Little Girls.
By Blanche Ebbutt

I wish more mothers would dress their little girls in knickerbockers and jerseys. They make a costume both useful and decent, and there would be less of this insufferable talk of the immodesty of knee-length skirts, about which we have heard so much of late. Years ago a large family of girls whom we met several times at the seaside showed me how bonnie one’s daughter can look when dressed like this. Their father was a doctor, and knew the value of the freedom of limb, lack of weight, and sufficient warmth of this style of dress. The older girls wore Navy blue knickerbockers and jerseys, and the younger ones a dark crimson. This summer we met a pretty little girl at our boarding-house who was rather a puzzle to us at first, but after a day or two we “placed” her. In a morning a demure little figure dressed in knickerbockers and jersey of a pretty shade of green, and with plaited hair coiled neatly above each ear would go out cycling with her mother; at dinner a child with long wavy hair and “fluffy’ frock sat by the same lady, and we soon identified the two girls as one and the same, I thought how sensibly the mother acted in this matter of dress. We women are quite sufficiently hampered by our skirts when we grow up, and must wear them: there’s no need to begin too soon.



To Abraham and Rachel from Suzanne F.

With best wishes to you both. Suzanne Bernard

Postmarked 3rd January 1913

To Abraham from Jane. Written in English.

47 Cambridge Gardens
Notting Hill
London W

Dear brother,

We are all quite well. Hoping you are the same. I am sorry I have not written to you before but I had no news to write. I don’t know how such a thing could have got into your mind that I was cross about the money. I never think of it. Mother is very sorry that you are in such a bad position. She is also not in very good health. I had a little trouble with my son Jack, I attend the Brompton hospital with him. The doctor found out that he has consumption and heart disease. I have no more news to write you so I think I will close my letter and wish you all a happy and prosperous New Year, and you should be more lucky. Please answer and write us how is Jack and what trade he is.
From Jene

6th January 1913, Paris

To Dora from Abraham. Written in Yiddish.


I received your letter in which you write that you’re ill. I replied to you straightaway, and Jacques, too, wrote you a letter, yet we’ve had no reply. I don’t believe that you don’t want to reply. I rather think that perhaps you didn’t receive our letters. I therefore send you this letter by registered post for my peace of mind and I ask you to reply straightaway whether you’ve received our letters, in which we ask about your health and how Lisa is doing. I don’t find it necessary to write at length about Jacques and how he’s doing for if you received my letter you’re well informed as I described everything, and he, too, wrote to you; and if not, I’ll write you in another letter.

Send me Lisa’s picture if possible—you did promise me—and if you don’t have Jacques’ picture I’ll send you.

Reply straightaway.


75 rue de Montreuil

21st January 1913

To Abraham from Annie S. Written in English.

106 Lolesworth Bldgs, Commercial Sq.,
Trawl Street, London E.

Dear Abraham,

I received your P.card which I was surprised with. I am writing to Dora today and enclosing your card. I think the address is wrong, it is 1744 Washington Ave, New York., U.S.A.

We have not received a letter from Dora for 3 months and we also cannot make out why she does not write. I hope all is well. Shall write you a long letter when I hear from her. I have no news to write you all is just the same as when you heard last. Hoping you and your family are all quite well. Don’t forget to write to us.

With fondest regards from mother Golda and my husband and myself. Fondest love to Jacky. Hoping to see him soon. Your friend and well-wisher,


1st February 1913

To Jacques from Louis Bt. Written in English.

Dear Jacques,

I was very pleased to receive your letter. It was pretty long and interesting so I was afraid to answer it with the time at my disposal, but if I didn’t write it would probably be another month before I could write again.

I can’t write very much now as it is eleven o’clock at night and tomorrow about one in the afternoon I sail for Venezuela, South America. I work for a steamship company. I am away from home on a 23 day trip which takes me to South America. We stay in New York about four days and then we leave again. I came home last Sunday from the previous trip.

There is much to see in a new country. Down in Curacao 1 they have a wooden bridge, spanning the river. It costs one cent to cross it if you go barefooted and two cents if you wear shoes. Some system! If it wasn’t wartime 2. I would probably ship across to England and visit you, but I have a pretty good job. Savvy?

Whenever I get to a port I manage to see it and I didn’t miss the Exposition down Frisco. I was inside a volcano in the Hawaiian Islands.

I will write you another letter from S. America. Don’t fail to do what you promised in your letter. Hoping you are well physically and mentally.

I will bid you goodbye. I am going to sleep directly.

Your cousin, Louis Bt.

15th February 1913, Paris

To Isidore M. from Abraham. Written in Yiddish.

Dear brother-in-law

I have received your letter and also the cards, and Rachel and I are very happy to hear that you are well. The cards also gave us a great deal of pleasure. Now we would also like to have photographs of our beloved father-in-law and mother-in-law, because these, too, would give us much pleasure.

As far as we are concerned, I have no special news to write you. Everything goes on as before, and Rachel, Jack and I are all in the best of health. Work is also going quite well, and I have nothing to complain about. I gave Miryam the two cards, and she thanks you very much for them.

With regard to what you wrote me, dear brother-in-law, about having sent Miryam 5 dollars to my address, I have to tell you that the money has not arrived, and I do not know the reason. I believe that, if you sent the money by registered post, you can ask for it to be repaid to you.

Now, dear brother-in-law, I must ask you to do something for me which I think you will not refuse to do, because it is very important to me and you would be doing me a very great favour. What I am going to ask you to do is as follows – I believe you know that, before I married Rachel, I had a wife whom I divorced. She went to America, to New York. I am not much interested in the woman, but what does interest me is the fact that, when she went away, she took our seven-year-old daughter with her. This girl must be 12 years old now. I loved the child very much, and she loved me, too. She was a very clever child. My ex-wife stole the child from me. I would never have given her to my ex-wife of my own free will. Up to now, I have been easy in my mind about her, because I knew that she was with her mother, who also loved her, and I was certain that she would not lack for anything. However, several months ago, I received a letter from her mother, my ex-wife, in which she told me that she was dangerously ill and did not think that she would recover. She asked me what she should do about the child. I replied immediately that, if she could send the child to me, I would be only too happy to have her. However, I had no reply to my letter so, a month later, I sent her a registered letter. Two weeks ago, both letters were returned to me because her address was not known. I had sent them to the address she had given me. I can only think that she has died and the child has been given away.

This, then, is what I am asking you to do: Please go to the address I am sending you and ask what has happened to her. Also, if it is possible to see the child, tell her that you have greetings for her from her father and her brother. You can show her his photograph, so that she will believe you. If you should see the mother, you can tell her, too, that you were sent by me to see the child and show her my son’s photograph as proof. That is all I ask of you and, knowing you to be a decent human being with human love, I am sure that you will do it for me. Do not think that Rachel will be in any way upset or that it will affect her life with me. She herself advised me to write to you about the matter, and she herself will be very pleased if you are able to find her and write to me about her.

These are the addresses where you can make inquiries about her:
1341 or 1541 Brook Avenue, The Bronx, and 1744 Washington Avenue.
My little girl’s name is Lisa.

4th March 1913

To Abraham from Isidore M. Written in Yiddish.

Dearly beloved sister and also my dear brother-in-law

Please be informed that we are in the best of health and hope to hear the same about you in the future.

You, my dear sister, asked me a favour, and I have done you that favour. You, my dear brother-in-law, also asked me to do you a favour. You asked me to find out where your child is and how she is. I have fulfilled my assignment and will tell you all about it.

You sent me the two addresses, but I could not find them at either address, so I had to ask people. I started asking one neighbour, then a second, then a third, and so on, until, eventually, I met a Missis who said: “Oh, you mean Mrs F.”. “Yes, that’s right, I mean Mrs F.” I replied. The Missis piped up “Oh I know Mrs F.’s address, but my husband has it. He will be here tomorrow, and I will make it ready for you. I would willingly give it to you myself, but I do not know where my husband has put it. Come tomorrow, and I will make the address ready for you”.

Well, what could I do? I went home. The next morning, I went there again, found out the address, and then began trying to find out exactly where the place was. To cut a long story short, I had the number of the house, found it and rang the bell. I was immediately told: “Come in” I opened the door and asked if Mrs F. lived there. “Yes, Mrs F. does live here. I am Mrs F., What do you want to see me about?” “I bring you greetings from your child in Paris”, I replied. “Greetings from Paris? Ah right, come in, come in”, she said, leading me into the front room. She motioned towards a chair and said: “Sit down Mister”. I needed no second bidding, because I was tired out from searching for the house. After I had sat down, I introduced myself, since there was no one else there to introduce me. Then I asked about the child, Lizzie, and she told me that Lizzie was not at home, she was at school. She would be back at 4 o’clock. Then she asked me if I had come from Paris, and I told her the truth—that I had never been in Paris in my life. However, I added, I had a friend in Paris who had got to know a Mr Avram B. and become friendly with him, building up a very good relationship. I used to correspond with my friend very often, and he used to praise very many things about Paris in his letters. One day, he had written to me praising Mr B., and I had written back asking him to introduce us to one another by letter. That had been two years ago, I told her, and Mr B. and I had been friends ever since.

Now Mr. B. had asked me to do him a favour and find out the child’s address, and also what the child was doing and how she was. He had sent me a picture of her Jack, so that she should see that everything was in order. At this point, I took Jack’s picture out of my jacket pocket and gave it to her. She began kissing the picture, and hot tears poured down her cheeks. For a minute or two, all I could hear was: “My dear child, my sweet child!” When she had calmed down, she asked me if it was right that you should not allow Jack to write to his mother and sister. Lisa was now old enough to understand, and she cried day and night because her brother did not write to her.

By this time, it was 4 o’clock, and Lizzie came in, “Hello Mummy”, she said and then, catching sight of me, asked: “Who is this gentleman?”. Pointing to me, her mother said: “This gentleman has brought you greetings from Papa and from Jack” and showed her the picture. At this, the child began dancing about and crying, and would not be comforted. Meanwhile, Mrs F. kept asking the whole time why her Jack did not write to the child. The child had begged that Jack should write to her and would reply to you if Jack wrote to her. If Jack were to write her a letter, he would receive pictures of Lisa.

I promised the child that I would try to persuade her Papa to let Jack write her a letter, and I myself, for my part, ask you to see to it that Jack should write to his sister and his mother. If he does write, he will receive a reply from Lisa and also a picture. For my part, I can tell you that the child is well and is doing all right at school. Things are going very well for her mother. She is short of nothing except that you should allow the children to write to each other, so that they do not forget each other. I am sending you the correct address in this letter. Your child herself wrote it down for me. I can also tell you, dear brother-in-law, that it hurt me to see how she was suffering because of her own brother does not want to write and tell her.

I calmed her down by telling her I would try and persuade you to let Jack write to her, and you, my dear brother-in-law, should send her a picture of the child, but make sure that she writes to you before she receives one from you. She promised me that, as soon as she returned home, she would write you a letter, and I think that you should already have received it. I am sure that you will keep my promise to your beloved daughter.

And now, I conclude my letter. Be well and happy.

From your brother-in-law
Yitzchak M.

Mother and Father send greetings to you all and kiss you and your child, Lisa. We also greet you and kiss you from the bottom of our hearts. Lisa also sends greetings to Jack and kisses him many thousands of times, and she begs for an answer.

Undated [probably 1913]

To Elise from Abraham. Written in English.

My dear Liza

I hope you got now a big girl and an inteligent one therefore I hope you will be able to write to your father which surely you did not forget yet a few lines and let him know all about you how you are going on in health and wether you are succeeding at scool. Tell me what kind of things you are taughout in school—every word from you will make me much pleasure therefore I beg you to write to me the most as possible. Be studious be obedient to your mother and try not to make her any agrivation like your brother does for me and I will love you always. I can’t give you now other things than many kisses from all my heart.

Your loving father,

A B.


To Elise from Jacques. Written in English.

My dear sister Liza

I hope that you remember still your brother Jacques, to which you liked always to ask questions and to which you listened always with great attention. It is the same who writes to you now and asks you how you are going on. I hope you will write a few lines to me to let me know how you are going on. Wether you are going to skool. I hope you know English now better than me. I would like also to know wether you know still the french language. Also let me know about you health. I send my best love and many kisses to you.

From your beloved brother



To Dora from Jacques. Written in French.

My dear mother,

I must write this few words in French that Elisa could not understand. So she will not ask you any questions about it.

Must I look with father’s eyes when I can remember everything what happened in our place. I was a boy of 10 years when you left me and a boy of 10 can remember things. I remember even the trip we have had to London in 1902 when I was 3 years old. I can remember many things what I have seen and I have heard in our place before the age of 10. Of course, I did not pay much attention to that but now I can guess what it meant. I never spoke to father about it but it is not with father’s eyes I look for the culpable. I do not want to speak much about it. Believe me my dear mother I do not mean to make you any reproaches and these few words have caused you any aggravation I heartily beg you to forgive me. I only answered to you on the reproach you make to me and unjust reproach you make to father. Please don’t answer me about it in your next letter because father never reads the letter I write to you but he reads always the letter I receive from you therefore I don’t want him to put me any questions what I wrote to you about.


11th April 1913

To Abraham and Jacques from Elise. Written in English.

Loving father,

I was very glad to receive your letter. I would be very glad to see you again. You asked me in your letter about my learning in school. I am learning very good in all subjects. I hope I should know the English language very well. I am very well. Mother is better than before but she is still weak. Whenever I hear about you and Jacques I begin to cry. You didn’t answer us so I thought you forgot me. I hope I will hear more about you. I am getting to be a big girl and could write better than before. I love you with all my heart and send you thousands and thousands of kisses. I will send you my photo but send me one with you and Jacques.

Your beloved daughter,

Eliza F.

Loving brother,

I was very glad to receive your letter. I forgot my French language. I am learning it again. I am very happy and healthy. Mother and I would like you to come to New York. Whenever I hear of you and papa I begin to cry. I would like to know how you are getting on. Please answer quickly. I send you thousands and thousands of kisses. I love you with all my heart. I hope you didn’t forget me. Please send me your photo.

Your beloved sister,

Eliza F.

15th April 1913, New York

To Abraham from Dora. Written in Yiddish.


I thank you very much for your letter and for that of Jacky. I’m really baffled by what it was with the address. I can’t remember for the life of me why I sent that address instead of the correct one. The only explanation perhaps is that I was very ill at the time when I wrote that letter.

Without realising it, I wrote you my old address, but now that you’re so good as to permit Jacky to write to me, I’ll tell you that Lisa is a great girl and I hope to make a decent human being out of her. She remembers everything of our former life, and she can never forget Jacky. I’ll photograph her and will send you her picture.

As for myself, I’ve got a few words to say to you. Even though I’m also of an opinion that it’s not worth reopening old wounds, I must say this to you for your own sake. Although you write that my illness comes from my giving birth and miscarrying, I understand you: it is your habit to say things to upset me. You always did it to me. If you knew it would upset me, you would say it to me on the pretext that you believed it was true. But times have changed. My health is being looked after very well and I wouldn’t be allowed to have a miscarriage and put my life at risk. When I wrote you that my illness was the result of my past life, I didn’t mean that you were to blame. I take [responsibility] and let it be me who is to blame, but I want to know just one thing: doesn’t the question Why? lie hidden deep in your heart? I never once thought that you would suffer as a result of my leaving you only because you would lose me. Your suffering was only for you . . . why you didn’t throw me out earlier? . . . This is the reason that gave me courage to make that step because from the first day I met you, I never heard from you that you felt compassion for me, and the last few weeks before I left you, how I asked you that we went away together. But you wanted to send me off alone so that I’d die of hunger and frustration. That wouldn’t have caused you any suffering.

I won’t write any more. It’s enough and I wouldn’t have written this you now either. I’m only writing it to say that after all I take responsibility for everything and do not blame you for anything. The sad truth is that my health is ruined and with it, my whole life. You can believe me – I’ve never been a liar and I have no reason to lie to you now because we’re now strangers to each other. I’m not beholden to you, nor you to me.

The only thing you mustn’t do is stop the children from writing to each other if they want to. Don’t let them drift apart. I can see that you made sure that Jacky would lose all his love for me. But I’m content that at least I’ll hear from him. To me, it was the worst thing you could possibly do, not to let me hear from him. If I happened to come down on you, please forgive me.


15th April 1913, New York

To Jacques From Dora. Written in English.

Dear son,

My dear boy I find no words to tell you how happy you maked me with your letter ther is nothing in the world that would make me happier then your few words. Allthough you write me as it was for charity not for love for your mother but I had what I deserved after your opinion I can’t blame you, you are only a little boy you are too young to anderstand and judge your mother but I must submit that I made you to sufer very much but I sufered the more you may believe me and I am sufering still. I can’t forget my dear little Jacky it is not a single minute time in my life that I should not speak and think abut you. I allways speak with Lizie abut you and poor little girl she is allways crying she wants to sea you my dear boy. You should not think that I left you and your father for my pleasur only and that I am so weak hearted don’t believe such things I was compeld to do so if I would stay alittle longer with your papa I am sure of it that I would be dead a long time ago. All my seakness came from the life I lived over there I don’t blame nobody but I am a good mother any ways and I am very glad to hear you are a good son to your father and in the same time you are so brite and studious. I was always sure of you that you will be like this. My dear boy I am going to ask you some thing and if it is posible I am sure you will do it I would be very glad to have your photo and if you could have one taken now it ill make me the happiest mother and if you like to have one I will send you in the same time with Lizies I am going to have her photo taken this weak. Please write me more abut you and do you like your position if you like to know some thing specially you have only to ask me I will answer you right away. Now I am ending my letter. I kiss you many, many times.

Your affectionate mother Dora

31st July 1913

To Abraham and Rachel from Anne F. nee Annie G. Written in English.

Dear Uncle and Aunt,

I received your card and I am very pleased to hear that I won’t cause you any inconvenience. I am starting from Victoria Station at 10 o’clock in the morning on Saturday, Aug. 2nd. I hope you will wait for me at the station.

Best love from


Dear brother and sister-in-law. I thank you very much for taking Annie to you for her holiday. I hope you will find her safely at the station.

1st August 1913

To Abraham from Jane. Written in English.

My dear Brother,

I am quite well hoping you are the same. When Annie wrote the other P.Card she forgot to write the time she will arrive in Paris. Well, she will arrive at Paris at 5.20 in the evening. Please don’t forget to wait for her at the station. Because you know she is foreign there. When you come to meet her will you take with her last photo that she sent you? Because she don’t know who it go to and I am frightened because someone might take her.

Best regards from all.

Best love from Mother.

From Shiendel

16th August 1913

To Abraham and Rachel from Annie F. Written in English.

My dear Uncle, and Aunt and Jack

I have arrived quite safe and I had a lovely journey. I thank you very much for giving me so much pleasure. Booba is very pleased with her present and she thanks you very much for it. They all met me at the station and were all pleased to see me and how happy I look. They would be more happy to see you all but they hope the time will soon come. They thank you very much for being so kind to me.

Best love to you all. I hope you will not be miserable without me.

From Annie.

Postcard dated 22nd August 1913

To Abraham and Rachel from Annie F. Written in English.

My dear Uncle, Aunt and Jack,

I am quite well hoping you are the same. We receive your two cards. They are lovely. I am very sorry that you were unhappy when I left, but you will soon forget. I am surprised that you say you did not do enough for me. Mother and father think you have done too much. Best love to Aunt & Jack & yourself. Let me know if Dorris comes to see you.

From Annie


To Rachel’s family in the States from Abraham. Written in Yiddish.

Dear father-in-law and mother-in-law , and also dear brother-in-law.

We have received your card and we are very glad to learn that you are well. We also have the pleasure of sending you some of the photographs we have had taken this week. I think you will recognise them, although one woman is there with us and with Rachel, whom you do not know. It is my sister’s daughter, who came to stay with us from London and was here for two weeks. Rachel became very fond of her, as if she were her own sister. Rachel is a very good wife. The photographs have come out very well and are very good likenesses.

Abraham and Rachel (seated) Annie F. and Jacques standing

I have nothing new to write to you about us. Everything is the same as before. We are all well, thank God. I am working, although times are very bad in Paris just now. Jack has a good post, too. He is already earning 90 francs a month and is getting on very well.

Dear brother-in-law, please write and tell me how you are and how business is, and everything else. Also, please let us know how our dear parents are faring.

Dear brother-in-law, I have a reproof to administer. You used to write me several pages at one time but, these days, you write only a few words on a postcard. Do you want to punish me for not writing very much to you?

27th August 1913

To Abraham and Rachel from Annie F. Written in English.

47 Cambridge Gardens,
Notting Hill,
London, W.

Dear Uncle,

We received your letter with the photos and we are pleased to hear you are all quite well. The photos are very nice. You all look lovely. Jack looks very saucy and you and aunt look just like real. I have made friends with Simmy and her husband and I will give them the photos but Yunkle will be cross so I cannot give Simmy the photos till you send Jack some too. If you have not got his address send them here and I will give it to him. Mr. S. is all right and he is not settled yet. He lives with his nephew they are very nice to him. He has been at our place and spoke to booba. He asked father that you wanted to know when the cabinet makers season starts. Well father said it starts in two or three weeks time but any time you come you could go into Levitz factory. There is a lot of people there and they earn good money. Mr. S. said by the way you work you could of had a lot more by now if you would of been here in London and Jack could earn a lot more here in an office, so I hope you will all soon come over, it would be easier if you came over by yourself first and found a place and then you could take over aunt and Jack, because if you want to come over all together it will take you years so I hope you will come first. I had a letter from my husband and he wrote that he will come at the end of the summer and he wrote that he was healthy and happy only he wants to see me. I expect another letter this week and I will let you know what he writes. I am pleased Dorris comes to you. I hope they all enjoyed the cinema. Ask Dorris why she does not write to me. Mr. S. told me she was not pleased with what I told her young man. I did not tell him anything to my knowledge to make her angry. Tell her I send my kind regards to her and I hope she will soon write to me. Mother and father send their best regards to you all and they like the photos very much. Father has just taken one to show Mr. S.

Booba sends her best love to you and she wants to see you all very much. She hopes the time will soon come. My brothers send their best regards to you all and so does my sister. She is going tomorrow for her holidays for 2 weeks.

Fondest love to my dear Uncle, Aunt and cousin Jack.

From your loving niece


PS, Mr. S. told us you had a letter from Dora. Could you please send it here? I should like to see it very much. As soon as I have seen it I will send it back to you. It does not matter whatever language it is written, please send it. I took with me accidentally a blue book that belongs to you. Let me know if you want it, so I will send it. On the cover is written Carnet De Memoire

10th September 1913

To Dora from Jacques. Written in English.

Dear Mother,

I beg you to excuse me that I kept you so long in waiting with my letter. I wanted to send you my photo with my letter but I could not have it till now. Now I am sending it to you and you can see how I was changed since you saw me the last time. I am very glad to tell you that I am going on very well I am in very good health. I am still in the same place where I was before and get 90 francs monthly. I am very satisfied with that place and my patron is also satisfied with me. He is very good to me. You have asked me if I like my position. Well I must tell you that I like it very well. I have got everything I want and I am very often to the theatre with father, every Sunday morning at 8 or nine o’clock I am going with father to the Bois de Boulogne or Jardin de Luxembourg or to a museum according to the weather we stop there till one or two o’clock after we come home we have our diner and we are going out for the time. In that way I spend my holidays. Father is very good to me and he takes care of me very much. Now dear mother I would like to know how are you going on. I hope you are in better health as before. Tell me all about you and if you can send me your photo I would be very glad to have it. Please send me also the photo of Lizzie I would like very much to see her. Please answer immediately and tell me every thing you could understand it will interest me.

Your affectionate son Jack

Undated [probably 1913]

To Abraham from Annie F. Written in English.

47 Cambridge Gardens,
Notting Hill,
London, W.

My dear Uncle,

We are all quite well hoping you are the same. We received your letter this morning. I could not make out why it took you such a long time to answer. If I would of known that you had to order 3 more photos I would not of sent for them. I did not want to cause you any expense. I think you spent enough while I was there. But anyhow I thank you very much for them. They all saw the photos and like it very much. We read the two letters from Dora and Lizzie and we were all very upset. I am sorry why you never spoke of Dora to me and thought you did not know anything or I would of asked you myself. You ought to of sent the Yiddish letter too, so I would ask Perel to read it, but never mind. I hope you will soon be here and you will read it yourself. If I were you I would not take any notice of what Dora writes. She is trying to take all the dirt off herself and put it on you. She writes that she would of been dead if she would of stayed with you a little longer. We all think that she is a mean, selfish woman to think only of herself but never take any notice of what she writes. I only wish I could give her a piece of my mind. She would have retribution all her life. I think Lizzie writes a very nice letter, poor little girl. She has to suffer through a selfish mother. I hope you will soon see her again. Let us know if you sent Jack’s photo to them and what they answered.

I was very upset to read about Dorris. How is it she was taken suddenly ill. Let me know how she is and tell me the truth what is the matter with her because Mr. S. told us she was in the family way. I am sorry she should of caused you so much aggravation, I have sent round for her young man and I will tell him all about it. There is no more news to write at present.

Best regards from all at home.

Fondest love from booba.

From your loving niece,


15th September 1913

To Annie F. from Abraham.

Dear Anny

I received your letter and am very glad to hear that you are all very well. Now I must tell you the truth what is the matter with Dorris. She is got a very nice boy! I did not want to tell you before because I did not want any body to know in London about it besides her parents and when I was in the hospital and she told me that I can write it to you so I am doing it and in the same time I beg you to excuse me for the lie I told you that it was an appendicitis. I come often to see her in the hospital and bring her some things she is in need of. I write letter to her parents to inform them how she is going on. She is really very lucky she found you on the way to Paris and came in my house. We are serving her like parents. Now I will answer you concerning Dora. I feel no wrath to her now as I am quite satisfied of my family live now and am very glad it append like this otherwise I would still live in that dirty life I used to live. I have sent her the photo of Jack because she told me she will send me that of Lizies in exchange. My wife is afraid of her she says when we will come to London she may come too sometimes and she will be troubled by her. I don’t think so.

15th September 1913, Paris

To Mrs C. from Abraham. Written in Yiddish.

Dear Mrs C.

I have received your card, and I immediately handed it over to Debbie, as I have done with every letter that has reached me up to now. My wife and I spent two hours with her today, and we found her well.

The question now arises, what should she do with the baby? As is usual in such cases, she wants to give the baby away, but I do not know if she will find it so easy to do. I shall be there on Wednesday at 10 o’clock, when she comes out of hospital, because I have to take her things, so I will raise the matter. However, I would advise her not to give the baby away, because she could regret doing so very much indeed. She is still young and perhaps does not yet have any maternal feelings, so it will not be difficult for her to give the baby away. But, later on, if she gets married and all goes well with her, she will want him to be with her but, by then, it will be too late and she will not be able to get him back. If they take him away from the city, she will not even know where he is, and this could cause her much sorrow.

When a child dies, one can forget about it, but when a child is alive, there always comes a time when one wants to have the child with one. My opinion is that she should leave the baby with a nurse if she can manage to do so for 20 or 25 francs a month. The baby will be looked after, and she can always find out how he is getting on by writing a letter.

London is a big city. Nobody will know that she has had a child, and she will be able to get him back whenever she wants to. Write and let me know your opinion. You do not need to feel ashamed, because there is nothing shameful about having a baby before the wedding. What is shameful is to destroy the baby or make it a permanent adoption.

16th September 1913

To Dorris from Abraham. Written in English.

Dear Miss Dorris

I have been yesterday evening at the hospital. I have asked in the office the day when you will come out. They told me it will be about Saturday or Sunday next. It will come a woman to take away the baby so you will have to stop there till the woman comes. I will try to come to see you on Thursday at one o clock but I am not sure of it because I am very busy but still I will try to come, if not you will write to me if you will have to ask me something or you will be in need of me so I will come. I enclose you the post card from your young man I have no other letters received, I hope you are getting on well.

I send you my best regards and wishes as those of my wife and Jack.

Yours truly, B.

16th September 1913 - postcard

To Abraham and Rachel from Annie F. Written in English.

My dear uncle

We are quite well, hoping you are the same. I wrote a letter to you last week, and you have not answered it yet I am dying to know how Dorris is getting on, and what her complaint is and so is her young man. Please answer immediately. Fondest love to all.

Best regards from mother and father.

Your loving niece,


My husband will be home in another 4 or 5 weeks time.

18th September 1913

To Abraham from Aby A. M. Written in English.

47 Cambridge Gardens
Notting Hill

Front of card ‘Debby is to arrive at Notting Hill’

Dear Mr B.

Thank you very much for all you did for my Debby. As you know I want her to come home this week if possible, and will you try and see that she does. When she arrives I will send you back with interest, all the money you spent. Hoping you will do me the favour.

I remain yours truly,
Aby A. M.

27th September 1913 - postcard

To Rachel B. from Doris.

Dear Mr. and Mrs. B.,

I hope you are quite well as it leaves me at present. I am now quite better. I am expecting you hear in about 2 or 3 weeks time, so is your mother and sister and also brother-in-law.


Love and regards to Jack and yourself and wife?

Undated [probably 1913]

To Rachel and Abraham from Doris.

24 Nicholas St.
St. Peters Road,

My dearest Mr. & Mrs. B.

I am writing this letter from Notting Hill I have seen your dear mother and I think she looks quite well only she is hoping you will not stay away long from her as she says she did not see you for 12 years and she would like to see Jack and also your dear wife. The very first minute I saw my young man I asked if your mother was comfortable and well looked after but he says he did not see her being badly treated only she seems a bit miserable at times, she has also told me that she will be more happy when you come and yet she can hardly believe that you are coming. Now I have no more to write you about her at present but if I see anything wrong I will let you know at once. Now about myself I am getting on very well and have no trouble at all with my chest, as it is now much better thank God, and I think I will not stop at home very long as I am sick of it already. I shall write to you very often and please tell your wife that everything is now quite well with me my young man is quite well and send his best regards to you all

My best love to you, your wife and also your dear son Jack.

From your most thankful friend Doris

In November 1913, Abraham returned to England to look for work.

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